VRCopilot: Authoring 3D Layouts with Generative Models in VR

Lei Zhang, Jin Pan, Jacob Gettig, Steve Oney, and Anhong Guo

Immersive authoring provides an intuitive medium for users to create 3D scenes via direct manipulation in Virtual Reality (VR). Recent advances in generative AI have enabled the automatic creation of realistic 3D layouts. However, it is unclear how capabilities of generative AI can be utilized in immersive authoring to support fluid interactions, user agency, and creativity. We introduce VRCopilot, a mixed-initiative system that integrates pre-trained generative AI models into immersive authoring, to facilitate human-AI co-creation in VR. VRCopilot presents multimodal interactions to support rapid prototyping and iterations with AI, and intermediate representations such as wireframes to augment user controllability over the created content. Through a series of user studies, we evaluated the potential and challenges in manual, semi-automatic, and fully automatic creation in immersive authoring. We found that creation with generative AI increased efficiency, and semi-automatic creation with wireframes enhanced the creation experience and user agency compared to fully automatic approaches.